Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Secondary Review Draft Report
The secondary review of urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu provides a situational analysis of the water and sanitation situation in urban areas of the State, situated in the context of economic growth, demographic change, natural resource endowments and their historical utilisation character. This study draws mainly from available secondary literature and data from the government and other public sources. The report also has details on the legal and institutional framework, the administrative structure of urban governance, and an analysis of the State finances, and the finances of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs).
Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Primary Study Report – Vol I
With a view to scope the tasks under the Tamil Nadu sanitation mission, Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) carried out a scoping exercise (study) in 2015 to gain an in-depth understanding of the current arrangements and practices in the full cycle of sanitation. The factors incorporated in the study ranged from design and construction practices of on-site sanitation systems to septage collection and waste disposal in Pammal Municipality and two town panchayats of Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam in Coimbatore. This report is based on the primary data collection including in-depth interviews with select households, masons and contractors, private business operators, as well as government officials, supplemented by secondary sources like the Census of India. The study shows that there is considerable divergence between prescribed standards and actual practices with respect to toilet design, construction and containment structures. In the study locations, regulatory measures for de-sludging and conveyance have been lax leading to unsafe disposal in non-designated areas. Also, the lack of sewage treatment plants (STPs) or emptying points nearby seems to be the biggest constraint to safe treatment and disposal. The study also found that the institutional capacities of the urban local bodies (ULBs) are limited to address the deficits in the full cycle of sanitation.
Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Primary Study Report – Vol II
With a view to scope the tasks under the Tamil Nadu sanitation mission, Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) carried out a scoping exercise (study) in 2015 to gain an in-depth understanding of the current arrangements and practices in the full cycle of sanitation. The factors incorporated in the study ranged from design and construction practices of on-site sanitation systems to septage collection and waste disposal in Pammal Municipality and two town panchayats of Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam in Coimbatore. This report contains the details on the study instruments used such as questionnaires, checklist used to retrieve data from different stakeholders along the sanitation value chain and selection criteria used for the study towns.
Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Exposure Visit Report
In India, there is lack of demonstrated successful models with respect to Fecal Sludge Management (FSM). As part of the scoping exercise to support sustainable urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu, it is essential that exposure visits are organised for the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) officers to locations where there are demonstrated successful models in implementation of FSM practices. Government stakeholders gaining exposure to robust FSM models in another developing country, is therefore, envisaged as one of the key preparatory steps for the development and operationalisation of effective FSM systems in Tamil Nadu. Based on secondary review, Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia and Dakar in Senegal were proposed as sites for the exposure visit. This report presents key learnings from these two locations with respect to effective implementation of FSM systems, which can be operationalised in Tamil Nadu. For instance, in Malaysia, regulatory frameworks are efficient and there is a clear allocation of roles and monitoring system across the sanitation value chain. In Senegal, the collaboration between the government agency and the private and informal service providers to sustain FSM is noteworthy.
Launch Workshops on Sanitation in Urban Areas of Tamil Nadu: Chennai, Coimbatore, and Trichy
A State-level Stakeholders’ Consultation was organised in November 2015 in Chennai to discuss the need for improvements along the urban sanitation value chain in Tamil Nadu. Representatives from the Municipal Administration and Water Supply (MAWS) department, delegates from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the staff members from Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS), and consortium partners such as Gramalaya, Keystone Foundation and CDD Society participated in the workshop. The workshop discussed ideas to achieve the overall objective of the Tamil Nadu Sanitation Mission and the possibility of demonstrating innovations in two urban locations. As a result of this consultation, the Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) was launched to implement Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) initiatives in two urban locations and use the learnings from these two locations to scale-up and implement FSM in urban areas across the State.
Legal and Institutional Review
In order to achieve 100% sanitation and improve public health outcomes in urban Tamil Nadu, TNUSSP undertook a legal, regulatory and institutional review across the sanitation value chain. This review mapped the institutional arrangements, laws, and regulations that govern sanitation in the State. This report provides a summary of the review along with the key areas for improvement and a road map to achieve 100% safe sanitation and improved public health outcomes.
Training Needs Assessment: Masons
The sanitation problem is not just about eliminating the need for open defecation by provision of infrastructure and instilling durable behaviour change, but also of ensuring safe containment in toilets, regular cleaning and proper conveyance of wastes from septic tanks, and treatment leading to safe disposal or re-use. Studies have shown that many a time, septic tanks are not constructed properly and hence, do not function as safe containment and preliminary treatment structures. Similarly, pits need to be constructed properly to safely contain human excreta. In this context, the TNUSSP conducted a training needs assessment among masons to understand the masonry practices in building toilets and construction of on-site sanitation systems, identify the skill gaps in the construction and ascertain the training needs of the masons. One of the key findings of this exercise was that none of the chief masons or skilled masons had undergone any technical education for masonry, and most of them have learned the masonry skill over time and through experience.
Training Needs Assessment: Urban Local Bodies on Septage Management
As part of the capacity building initiatives of TNUSSP, a Training Needs Assessment (TNA) of officers in the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) of Tamil Nadu was conducted between April and June 2016, with an aim to identify the gaps in administrative, institutional, financial and human capacity of the ULBs with respect to implementation of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM). The study revealed that there was limited awareness and knowledge among the officers on fecal sludge treatment and re-use options at different levels within the ULBs. This exercise also showed that the roles and responsibilities of the staff, especially that of sanitary workers and inspectors, was not clear. This, along with, limited capacities and resources in the ULBs had resulted in poor regulations over regular cleaning of on-site sanitation systems.
Behaviour Change and Communication: Programme Highlights
The Behaviour Change and Communication (BCC) is a key component of the TNUSSP and seeks to address the issue of behaviour change through a range of approaches, of which communication campaigns, activities targeted at appropriate segments, are an important part. This report highlights the activities and communication campaigns that were carried out in Trichy, Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam to promote safe sanitation behaviour and practices among different stakeholders. Activities like the School Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion programme were organised with an aim to inculcate healthy sanitation behaviours and practices such as hand washing amongst school children. Communication materials such as pamphlets, and posters were released, and activities such as quiz competitions, and skits were conducted as part of the event. On important days like World Toilet Day, communication campaigns were organised to increase awareness levels among different stakeholders in prioritising safe sanitation for improved quality of life. During these events, activities such as awareness rallies, signature campaigns, travelling films, public meetings, felicitation of sanitary workers, were carried out.